Yes, they caught your face on the cameras and they'll put you into a database until they feel bored one day and come to your house to arrest you. Most retail stores like Target put money into state of the art forensic facilities that government agencies sometimes use. Your best chance is just to return what you stole and say sorry.
Yes .. There is no limit of time ... A theft can be investigated for a longtime before an arrest is made or charges filed. Thanks to security cameras .. If you are foolish enough to steal .. You deserve your just reward.
If they have you on video they can charge you until the statute of limitations run out. Which is usually a few years.