The harmful effects of crime depend very much on the type of crime committed. They also depend on whether you're talking about the criminal or the victim(s). Let's assume you're talking about the victim. Here are a few pointers on a different types of crime and the harm they cause.
The immediate victim is dead. Dead as a doornail. The harm is that they have lost their life. Their friends and family are also victims. They suffer profound grief.
The victim endures extreme trauma, which can last a lifetime. The harm is that their perception of the world and its human inhabitants is changed forever. They may find it difficult to trust, to love and to make relationships.
The victim is, in a 'successful' mugging, financially worse off. They may also suffer more long-lasting harm. They are likely to find themselves more fearful, less content and more anxious than before they were mugged.
The examples above are pretty clear scenarios where the victim has suffered harmful effects at the hands of a criminal.
But don't forget that even non-violent or "white-collar crime" affects people & society in multiple ways. There's a saying that goes "there's no such thing as a victimless crime".